In order to understand the relationship between poetry in Urdu and sad mood, it is important to have a basic knowledge of the language. A poet can convey a message by means of his art and his poetry. There are four aspects of poetry in Urdu. These four aspects are Tahiti, masn, sharif and mehr.
Kahiti: The word “kahiti” (meaning cheerful) literally means happy. A poet can express his emotions in this field through his words. When we look at Urdu poetry in terms of sad poetry, we will find that many of the poets who wrote sad poetry focused on the idea of serenity. They created serene environments through their verses.
Masn: Masn (meaning sad poetry) is a form of rhyme. In fact, one of the major forms of sad poetry in Urdu is mujhyar. Mujhyar takes us back to our youth by reciting some of the lines from a children’s poem. Severe sadness is expressed in these lines. Obelisk is a form of rhyme in which there is a rhyming pattern in which each line is rhymed. Again, the poetry in Urdu of this genre is very beautiful.
Shaf: In order to understand the relationship between poetry in Urdu and sad poetry is, we should know what that means. In Urdu, the word “shaf” (meaning angry or fierce) is used to describe somebody or something. Therefore, when we look at sad poetry in Urdu, we find that many of the poets described their emotions in the manner of a fierce warrior or conqueror. A poet such as Farooq Ahmed who is from the district of Alwar describes his emotions while fighting in the war in Afghanistan in these words: “The pain of war / is as a serpent which coils around my heart like a coil.” The lines literally mean “I have no strength in me.”
Ker Gham: Another sad poem in Urdu that we will look at is Ker Gham (meaning happy or joy). It is often translated as Happy Birthday. In Urdu, the phrase means: “Happy Birthday to you; take care of me.” Ker gham is used to wish someone or something a happy birthday. The poem was originally written to a girl called Nazm Muhammad; her birthday was on 1st April every year.
Teremil: To understand teremil we need to know what a theremin is. Teremil is an expression of sorrow. This is used more so in the Urdu language when there is a family member who is ill or even dead. The translation for theremin is Seerat-un-Nabi (Allah’s anger) and it expresses the extreme sadness one feels when somebody close to him dies. The most famous example is the opening lines of the poem by Waqar al-Khatam: “Teremil! The fate of the Beloved has reached Its End!”
Dil Pir: Dil Pir means Love in Arabic. It was originally written in Persian and means “seize the opportunity.” It was later adapted as a poem in Urdu by Sayed Safi Ur Rehman. The translation for Dil Pir is usually as follows: “O Seerat! Take the opportunity; give it to me, for I will love it.”
Kisi Kerkar: This one is very difficult to translate as the translation for Keri (good) is also very difficult. The word “kisi” (good) in Urdu is usually used in a positive context, whereas “keri” (bad) is normally used in a negative context. “Kisi Kerkar” literally means “Good Fortune” in Urdu. A famous example is when the Alawite president succeeded a dead tyrant who had been oppressing the Sunnis.
Nazm: The word “Nazm” means “Endurance” in Arabic. It was first translated into English as “Endurance of God.” In Urdu, the translation is “The endurance of God.” The most famous lines from Nazm are: “In what way can we test the endurance of God? In the fire, by famine, by water, by hardship, by wind, by hate?”
Nazm can be rendered as Two Lines or as a Ghazal, i.e. a rhyme with two meanings. In the first line the poet wants to ask: “How great is God? Who are great but God?”
In the second line the poet wants to answer: “He is God, for He is great.” This type of poetry is very difficult to understand because the poet does not use the proper rhymes with se and gham or the rhythm with the English language. But if you want to have a good understanding of this type of poetry then you should go through the books by S.Z. Al Hajar and M.A. Al Hajar.